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Useful Information

Toxoplasmosis

Posted on Thursday, February 1, 2007

Toxoplasmosis Treatment & Oral Nosode HOMEOPROPHYLAXIS

Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis, a disease of cats and other mammalian species, is caused by a parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that are among the simplest creatures in the animal kingdom.
Although infection with Toxoplasma is fairly common, actual disease caused by the parasite is relatively rare.

The Life Cycle of Toxoplasma

Cats, domestic and wild, are the definitive host (host in which the adult, or sexually mature stage, of the parasite is produced) and are the parasite's primary reservoir of infection. Domestic cats are important in transmission of Toxoplasma to other animals and human beings, which become involved only as intermediate hosts of the parasite. Consumption of raw meat tissues is another important means of transmission.

Cats acquire Toxoplasma infection by eating any of the three infective stages of the parasite: cyst, oocyst, or tachyzoite. Following ingestion of cysts in infected prey (rodents or birds), the intraintestinal infection cycle begins. This cycle occurs only in members of the cat family. The organisms multiply in the wall of the small intestine and produce oocysts, which are then excreted in great numbers in the faeces for two to three weeks. Within five days the shed oocysts may sporulate, becoming infectious to other animals and to humans. Sporulated oocysts are highly resistant to environmental conditions and can survive in moist shaded soil or sand for many months.

During the intraintestinal infection cycle in the cat, some Toxoplasma organisms released from the ingested cysts penetrate more deeply into the wall of the intestine and multiply as tachyzoite forms. Very soon these forms spread out from the intestine to other body sites, starting the extra intestinal infection cycle. Eventually the cat's immune system restrains this stage of the organism, which then enters a dormant or "resting" stage by forming cysts in muscles and brain. Most cysts probably remain dormant for the life of the host. The extra intestinal infection cycle occurs not only in cats but also in the intermediate hosts (including humans).

Most healthy exposed cats shed oocysts during acute infection with Toxoplasma, but will not shed them after the acute infection. Even in those few cats that do re-excrete oocysts after another exposure to Toxoplasma, the number of oocysts shed is smaller and may even be insufficient to transmit the parasite effectively.
- Ingestion of tissue cysts in infected prey or in other raw meat is probably the most common route by which cats are exposed to Toxoplasma. Congenital infection (transmission from mother to fetus) occurs in sheep, goats, and humans, but is much less common in cats.

Signs
Most cats show no clinical signs of infection with Toxoplasma. Occasionally, however, clinical disease—toxoplasmosis—occurs, kittens and young adult cats being more often affected than older animals.

Lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, and fever are typical early non-specific signs.

Pneumonia, manifested by respiratory distress of gradually increasing severity, is the outstanding sign in many cats.

Hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, prostration, and jaundice (yellowing of the mucous membranes). Inflammation of the pancreas and enlargement of lymph nodes also occur. Toxoplasmosis can also affect the eyes and central nervous system, producing inflammation of the retina or anterior ocular chamber, abnormal pupil size and responsiveness to light, blindness, incoordination, heightened sensitivity to touch, personality changes, circling, head pressing, twitching of the ears, difficulty in chewing and swallowing food, seizures, and loss of control over urination and defecation.

In some cases, co infection with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) may predispose a cat to develop toxoplasmosis.

Diagnosis
Toxoplasmosis may be strongly suspected by the history, signs of illness, and the results of supportive laboratory tests. A presumptive diagnosis may be made by demonstration of a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers to Toxoplasma (indicating a recent infection) over a three- or four-week period in a cat showing signs suggestive of toxoplasmosis. A definitive diagnosis requires either microscopic examination of tissues or tissue impression smears for distinctive pathologic changes and the presence of tachyzoites or inoculation of suspect material into laboratory mice. The presence of significant antibody levels in a healthy cat suggests that the cat has been previously infected and now is most likely immune and not excreting oocysts. The absence of antibody in a healthy cat suggests that the cat is susceptible to infection and thus would shed oocysts for one to two weeks following exposure.

Conventional Drug Treatment
Most often used—pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine—act together to inhibit Toxoplasma reproduction. After diagnosis and continued for several days after signs have disappeared. In acute illness, treatment is sometimes started on the basis of a high antibody titer in the first test. If clinical improvement is not seen within two to three days, the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis should be questioned. Pyrimethamine may be unpalatable or very toxic to cats, even if given in small amounts. Recently, the antibiotic clindamycin has been given to treating feline toxoplasmosis, still with severe side-effects observed. Conventional medicines do not offer nor is a vaccine available to prevent either Toxoplasma infection or toxoplasmosis in cats, humans, or other species.

Alternative Natural Treatment and Prevention can offer a protection using the nosode of Toxoplasmosis as well as treatment. The Nosode is effective, with no toxic side affects to any species using this protocol.

What is a nosode?
Nosodes are potenized homeopathic remedies that are made from pathological tissue or infected discharge from the animals. They differ from conventional drugs and vaccines in that they are potenized, which means they have been diluted to the point that they no longer contain the elemental substance of the diseased tissue or the infected discharge, but do retain the healing properties.

These Toxoplasmosis Treatment & Oral Nosode HOMEOPROPHYLAXIS ARE SUGGESTED TREATMENTS.


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AN # 203 TOXOPLASMOSIS 50 ml $44.00

Toxoplasmosis Treatment Suitable for all species
(Ingredients: Goldenseal, bell 6X, Euph, Toxoplasmosis gondi oral nosode 6, 200C, 1M).

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